The Kamengo Feeder

The Kamengo Feeder is at the heart of solutions offered by Kamengo. The Feeder withdraws material evenly from its full infeed opening and can be made as wide as needed and as long as desired. These attributes are necessary when designing for a difficult flowing material. 

Overview

1
Material is never stagnant with no compaction
2
Material is discharged in uniform “slices”
3
Discharge over full length

Feeder Overview

 

The Kamengo Feeder consists of a number of slotted openings that traverse back and forth. As the slots traverse the length of the bin, a uniform slice of the stored bulk solid falls from the full width and length of the bin outlet. The thickness of the slice is controlled by the internal geometry of the feeder. The combination of the thickness of the slice and the speed of the feeder determines the feed rate of the stored material.  

 

The Feeder is driven by hydraulic cylinders. By adjusting the flow rate to the hydraulic cylinders via a proportional directional valve, plants can vary the discharge rate from the Feeder, including achieving full turndown. The Feeder is a heavy, robust piece of machinery that will continue to deliver a consistent discharge regardless of wear and tear. There are no restrictions on how you use the Feeder. You can fill it from tall heights, including while it is operating. 

 

 The geometry of every Feeder is custom designed to suit the application and bulk solid.  Key design parameters include: the cohesive strength of the bulk solid, material bulk density, particle size, range of desired discharge rates, desired storage volume and height of the stored material.  

 

Mass Flow

1
All stored material is in constant motion during discharge.
2
To achieve proper mass flow, the storage bin should empty evenly and equally.
3
Bin geometry alone is not enough to achieve mass flow.
4
The stored material should descend as a single body in Mass Flow.

The Kamengo Feeder and Mass Flow

 

When you combine a Kamengo Feeder with a storage bin whose geometry (angle of sloping walls and size of discharge outlet) is chosen to deliver mass flow, you get mass flow. This is not the case with most conventional feeders which have a propensity to withdraw material unevenly from the storage bin. Uneven discharge in a storage bin designed for mass flow, regardless of the geometry of the storage bin, will result in a funnel flow discharge pattern, which can lead to chronic bridging and rat-holing. 

 

By definition, to achieve mass flow, the storage bin must empty evenly and equally from the full length and width of its discharge outlet. With mass flow, all of the stored material is in motion during discharge. The stored material descends the storage bin as a single body. The only way this is achieved is if the Feeder withdraws material evenly where all the material above the Feeder is in motion. This is where the Kamengo Feeder comes in. 

Funnel Flow

In Funnel Flow, material should be withdrawn equally from a long and wide discharge opening.
The secret is that all the material above the Feeder is in motion. As a result, the stored bulk solid does not hang up.

The Kamengo Feeder and Funnel Flow

Funnel flow can be plenty reliable, including when handling a difficult flowing bulk solid, as long as material is withdrawn equally from a long and wide discharge opening that is greater than the area over which the bulk solid can form a stable rat-hole. For most difficult flowing materials, the minimum opening can be quite wide and long. This is where the Kamengo Feeder comes in. 

 

The Feeder is able to deliver an active wide and long discharge opening that is greater than what the bulk solid can either dome or form a stable rat hole over. The secret is that all the material above the Feeder is in motion. As a result, the stored bulk solid is denied the strength it needs to hang-up. 

Key Features

Feed evenly from the entire opening of the bin

A storage and feed system handling a difficult flowing material must be discharged from a wide and long opening where all the material above the Feeder is in motion. This is very challenging to do with conventional technologies, whereas achieving this is the most significant feature of the Kamengo Feeder.

No material compaction or shearing

Unlike conventional alternatives, the Kamengo Feeder does not shear material from the storage bin or pile. The shearing action of conventional feeders results in material compaction at the discharge outlet. This compaction increases the cohesive strength of the stored bulk solid. As the stored bulk solid’s cohesive strength increases, it is able to bridge over wider distances, making it more prone to bridging and the formation of rat-holes.

Uses gravity to discharge

Unlike conventional alternatives, the Kamengo Feeder does not shear material from the storage bin or pile. In contrast, the Kamengo Feeder uses gravity to discharge material in a controlled manner.

Low Power Low Wear

The Kamengo Feeder does not put energy into shearing material out of the storage bin, but instead relies on gravity to let material fall from the storage bin or pile. As a result, it requires far less power than a conventional feeder, saving both energy and exposure to excess wear. 

Consistent metering of material

The Kamengo Feeder delivers consistent metering over a wide range of discharge capacities. A given Feeder does not have a sweet spot. It will be able to deliver a consistent discharge ranging from a trickle of material all the way to its full design capacity. With controlled metering, there is no surge loading, which equates to better functioning chutes and no over-flowing conveyors. 

Flexible design

To be reliable, a Feeder must withdraw material evenly from an area that is greater than what the bulk solid can bridge over. The dimensions of this minimum opening are determined through material flow testing. A significant strength of the Kamengo Feeder is that it can be made as wide as needed and as long as desired. This means that the Kamengo Feeder can be sized conservatively relative to the theoretical minimum discharge opening needed to reliably handle the bulk solid. 

Low Profile

The Kamengo Feeder has a low profile relative to most conventional feeders. This feature is valuable when retrofitting problem storage and feed systems where headroom is at a premium. Further, the Feeder’s low profile is particularly valuable for pile reclaim applications where customers can accrue significant savings from reduced civil work. 

Discharges over full length

The Kamengo Feeder does not convey material to a single point, but instead discharges over its full length. This feature is valuable for truck and railcar load out applications where trucks, railcars and shipping containers can be loaded in one go without indexing forward. 

Heavy piece of machinery

The Feeder construction is simple and has few wear points. It can be built with hard surfaces and stainless steel for extra abrasion and/or corrosion resistance. Further, the Feeder can take a severe beating and continue to deliver reliable discharge. When the opportunity is appropriate, the Feeder can be rebuilt or repaired, including in-situ via bolt-on parts. 

Efficiently handles loads

The Feeder is very efficient in the way it handles loads. As a result, it can be made very wide at the fraction of the cost of competing conventional alternatives. 

Proven solution

The first Kamengo Feeder was put into service in 1988. With over 100 Feeders delivered handling a variety of difficult flowing materials, many operating 24/7 for several decades, the Feeder is a proven solution for handling difficult flowing materials. The Feeder has proven to be reliable discharging in either mass flow or funnel flow as well as from tall and long storage and feed arrangements. 

Easy Maintenance

The Feeder body includes large access doors on the side and ends of the Feeder. These doors provide ready access to the Feeder guts for quick in-situ maintenance. For larger rebuilds, the entire Feeder guts can be pulled and replaced from one or both ends of the Feeder. 

Adjustable in the field

The guts of all Kamengo Feeders are adjustable. The nature of bulk solids handling is that materials change or sometimes behave differently than expected. The Kamengo Feeder is designed to be adjusted in the field so that it can be optimized to reliably handle your bulk solids.

Options

Construction to resist abrasion and corrosion 

The wetted parts of the Feeder can be lined with bolt-on stainless steel or abrasion-resistant wear plates when handling corrosive or highly abrasive bulk solids. 

Positive isolation

The Kamengo Feeder can be used as a positive isolation gate, where when the Feeder stops, material discharge is closed from processes down below.  

Pair with conveyor

The Kamengo Feeder is easily paired with a conveyor where it is necessary to bring the discharge to a single point. Conveyors, including belt, screw and chain conveyors, can be hung directly from the Feeder.

Spliced guts

The guts of the Kamengo Feeder can be delivered in sections and spliced together in the field to reduce the lengths of equipment operators need to handle during maintenance. 

Loading deck with dust control system

For truck and railcar load out applications, the Feeder can be fitted with a loading deck and shroud that lowers onto the truck bed/railcar. An integrated dust control system filters air displaced by the loaded material through HEPA filters. The dust control system uses self-cleaning filters for a hassle-free operation.

Redundant and flexible hydraulics

The Kamengo Feeder is driven by hydraulics. A single hydraulic power unit can be used to operate multiple feeders. Hydraulic power units can also be fitted with stand-by pump-motor groups and dual filters to ensure full redundancy. This option is particularly valuable for 24/7 applications. Finally, the hydraulic power unit can be specially designed for operation at high-altitudes. 

Belted Feeder for gentler handling

Kamengo offers a zero-friction, belted version of the Feeder for gentle handling of easily-degradable bulk solids such as pellets. The gentle handling of the belted Kamengo Feeder minimizes the loss of product. 

Heat tracing and insulation

The Kamengo Feeder, its chute and storage bin can be wrapped in insulation and heat traced for operations where freezing is a concern. 

Side-mounted hydraulic cylinders

The Kamengo Feeder can be fitted with side mounted hydraulic cylinders to minimize the length of the equipment.

Automatic lubrication system

The Feeder can be fitted with an automatic lubrication system that lubricates the Feeder wheels. 

Conditioning

The Feeder can be fitted with a conditioning system that hits the discharged bulk solid with a steady mist of water as the bulk solid falls from the Feeder. The Kamengo conditioning system is an excellent low-wear alternative to screw mixers. 

Steaming

Steam can be injected through the Feeder into the stored bulk solid above. When combined with a mass flow storage bin, the Feeder delivers even steaming in the stored bulk solid. 

Pressurized operation

The Kamengo Feeder can be fitted within a pressure vessel for applications that must eliminate any ingress of air into downstream processes. 

Shortcomings Of Conventional Feeders

Material Compaction
Uneven Disharge

The Shortcomings of Conventional Feeders

 

The Kamengo Feeder was developed in response to the common shortfalls of conventional feeders. These shortfalls often result in uneven discharge and chronic plugging.

 

Starting in the late 1970s, Kamengo led a research program to better understand the root causes of bin plugging and found that the feeder was a major culprit contributing to chronic plugging. In particular they found that the conventional feeders have two shortfalls that are particularly problematic when handling a difficult flowing material. These shortfalls include:

 

Material Compaction. The conveying and shearing action of conventional feeders has a tendency to compact material in the bin. As material is conveyed to a single-point, either through friction or interlocking, the material being sheared from the storage bin carries and conveys material above it. This material is compacted against the front of the bin wall. This compaction injects strength into the material. As the stored material’s shear strength increases, the material is able to bridge over wider distances, making it more prone to uneven feed, bridging and the formation of rat-holes.

 

Uneven Discharge. Conventional feeders have a tendency to withdraw material preferentially from the rear of the storage bin. This behaviour is problematic for several reasons:

 

1) for most difficult flowing materials, gravity needs to act on the full span of the discharge outlet in order to be sufficient to keep the material flowing. When the span of the area through which material is flowing is shortened by the behaviour of the feeder, then the material at the outlet requires less shear strength to form a stable bridge or rat-hole. When the shear strength of the material at the outlet exceeds what gravity can break, chronic plugging is expected.

 

2) uneven discharge promotes a funnel flow discharge pattern, regardless of the geometry of the storage bin. It is particularly unfortunate when a conventional feeder induces a funnel flow discharge pattern in a bin designed for mass flow. This is because most difficult flowing materials will not reliably empty in funnel flow from a storage bin designed for mass flow. To make funnel flow work for a difficult flowing material, it must be discharged from a very long and wide “live” opening.

LEARN MORE AT KAMENGO-U
1
Material is never stagnant with no compaction
2
Material is discharged in uniform “slices”
3
Discharge over full length

Feeder Overview

 

The Kamengo Feeder consists of a number of slotted openings that traverse back and forth. As the slots traverse the length of the bin, a uniform slice of the stored bulk solid falls from the full width and length of the bin outlet. The thickness of the slice is controlled by the internal geometry of the feeder. The combination of the thickness of the slice and the speed of the feeder determines the feed rate of the stored material.  

 

The Feeder is driven by hydraulic cylinders. By adjusting the flow rate to the hydraulic cylinders via a proportional directional valve, plants can vary the discharge rate from the Feeder, including achieving full turndown. The Feeder is a heavy, robust piece of machinery that will continue to deliver a consistent discharge regardless of wear and tear. There are no restrictions on how you use the Feeder. You can fill it from tall heights, including while it is operating. 

 

 The geometry of every Feeder is custom designed to suit the application and bulk solid.  Key design parameters include: the cohesive strength of the bulk solid, material bulk density, particle size, range of desired discharge rates, desired storage volume and height of the stored material.  

 

1
All stored material is in constant motion during discharge.
2
To achieve proper mass flow, the storage bin should empty evenly and equally.
3
Bin geometry alone is not enough to achieve mass flow.
4
The stored material should descend as a single body in Mass Flow.

The Kamengo Feeder and Mass Flow

When you combine a Kamengo Feeder with a storage bin whose geometry (angle of sloping walls and size of discharge outlet) is chosen to deliver mass flow, you get mass flow. This is not the case with most conventional feeders which have a propensity to withdraw material unevenly from the storage bin. Uneven discharge in a storage bin designed for mass flow, regardless of the geometry of the storage bin, will result in a funnel flow discharge pattern, which can lead to chronic bridging and rat-holing. 

 

By definition, to achieve mass flow, the storage bin must empty evenly and equally from the full length and width of its discharge outlet. With mass flow, all of the stored material is in motion during discharge. The stored material descends the storage bin as a single body. The only way this is achieved is if the Feeder withdraws material evenly where all the material above the Feeder is in motion. This is where the Kamengo Feeder comes in. 

In Funnel Flow, material should be withdrawn equally from a long and wide discharge opening.
The secret is that all the material above the Feeder is in motion. As a result, the stored bulk solid does not hang up.

The Kamengo Feeder and Funnel Flow

Funnel flow can be plenty reliable, including when handling a difficult flowing bulk solid, as long as material is withdrawn equally from a long and wide discharge opening that is greater than the area over which the bulk solid can form a stable rat-hole. For most difficult flowing materials, the minimum opening can be quite wide and long. This is where the Kamengo Feeder comes in. 

 

The Feeder is able to deliver an active wide and long discharge opening that is greater than what the bulk solid can either dome or form a stable rat hole over. The secret is that all the material above the Feeder is in motion. As a result, the stored bulk solid is denied the strength it needs to hang-up. 

Feed evenly from the entire opening of the bin

A storage and feed system handling a difficult flowing material must be discharged from a wide and long opening where all the material above the Feeder is in motion. This is very challenging to do with conventional technologies, whereas achieving this is the most significant feature of the Kamengo Feeder.

No material compaction or shearing

Unlike conventional alternatives, the Kamengo Feeder does not shear material from the storage bin or pile. The shearing action of conventional feeders results in material compaction at the discharge outlet. This compaction increases the cohesive strength of the stored bulk solid. As the stored bulk solid’s cohesive strength increases, it is able to bridge over wider distances, making it more prone to bridging and the formation of rat-holes.

Uses gravity to discharge

Unlike conventional alternatives, the Kamengo Feeder does not shear material from the storage bin or pile. In contrast, the Kamengo Feeder uses gravity to discharge material in a controlled manner.

Low Power Low Wear

The Kamengo Feeder does not put energy into shearing material out of the storage bin, but instead relies on gravity to let material fall from the storage bin or pile. As a result, it requires far less power than a conventional feeder, saving both energy and exposure to excess wear. 

Consistent metering of material

The Kamengo Feeder delivers consistent metering over a wide range of discharge capacities. A given Feeder does not have a sweet spot. It will be able to deliver a consistent discharge ranging from a trickle of material all the way to its full design capacity. With controlled metering, there is no surge loading, which equates to better functioning chutes and no over-flowing conveyors. 

Flexible design

To be reliable, a Feeder must withdraw material evenly from an area that is greater than what the bulk solid can bridge over. The dimensions of this minimum opening are determined through material flow testing. A significant strength of the Kamengo Feeder is that it can be made as wide as needed and as long as desired. This means that the Kamengo Feeder can be sized conservatively relative to the theoretical minimum discharge opening needed to reliably handle the bulk solid. 

Low Profile

The Kamengo Feeder has a low profile relative to most conventional feeders. This feature is valuable when retrofitting problem storage and feed systems where headroom is at a premium. Further, the Feeder’s low profile is particularly valuable for pile reclaim applications where customers can accrue significant savings from reduced civil work. 

Discharges over full length

The Kamengo Feeder does not convey material to a single point, but instead discharges over its full length. This feature is valuable for truck and railcar load out applications where trucks, railcars and shipping containers can be loaded in one go without indexing forward. 

Heavy piece of machinery

The Feeder construction is simple and has few wear points. It can be built with hard surfaces and stainless steel for extra abrasion and/or corrosion resistance. Further, the Feeder can take a severe beating and continue to deliver reliable discharge. When the opportunity is appropriate, the Feeder can be rebuilt or repaired, including in-situ via bolt-on parts. 

Efficiently handles loads

The Feeder is very efficient in the way it handles loads. As a result, it can be made very wide at the fraction of the cost of competing conventional alternatives. 

Proven solution

The first Kamengo Feeder was put into service in 1988. With over 100 Feeders delivered handling a variety of difficult flowing materials, many operating 24/7 for several decades, the Feeder is a proven solution for handling difficult flowing materials. The Feeder has proven to be reliable discharging in either mass flow or funnel flow as well as from tall and long storage and feed arrangements. 

Easy Maintenance

The Feeder body includes large access doors on the side and ends of the Feeder. These doors provide ready access to the Feeder guts for quick in-situ maintenance. For larger rebuilds, the entire Feeder guts can be pulled and replaced from one or both ends of the Feeder. 

Adjustable in the field

The guts of all Kamengo Feeders are adjustable. The nature of bulk solids handling is that materials change or sometimes behave differently than expected. The Kamengo Feeder is designed to be adjusted in the field so that it can be optimized to reliably handle your bulk solids.

Construction to resist abrasion and corrosion 

The wetted parts of the Feeder can be lined with bolt-on stainless steel or abrasion-resistant wear plates when handling corrosive or highly abrasive bulk solids. 

Positive isolation

The Kamengo Feeder can be used as a positive isolation gate, where when the Feeder stops, material discharge is closed from processes down below.  

Pair with conveyor

The Kamengo Feeder is easily paired with a conveyor where it is necessary to bring the discharge to a single point. Conveyors, including belt, screw and chain conveyors, can be hung directly from the Feeder.

Spliced guts

The guts of the Kamengo Feeder can be delivered in sections and spliced together in the field to reduce the lengths of equipment operators need to handle during maintenance. 

Loading deck with dust control system

For truck and railcar load out applications, the Feeder can be fitted with a loading deck and shroud that lowers onto the truck bed/railcar. An integrated dust control system filters air displaced by the loaded material through HEPA filters. The dust control system uses self-cleaning filters for a hassle-free operation.

Redundant and flexible hydraulics

The Kamengo Feeder is driven by hydraulics. A single hydraulic power unit can be used to operate multiple feeders. Hydraulic power units can also be fitted with stand-by pump-motor groups and dual filters to ensure full redundancy. This option is particularly valuable for 24/7 applications. Finally, the hydraulic power unit can be specially designed for operation at high-altitudes. 

Belted Feeder for gentler handling

Kamengo offers a zero-friction, belted version of the Feeder for gentle handling of easily-degradable bulk solids such as pellets. The gentle handling of the belted Kamengo Feeder minimizes the loss of product. 

Heat tracing and insulation

The Kamengo Feeder, its chute and storage bin can be wrapped in insulation and heat traced for operations where freezing is a concern. 

Side-mounted hydraulic cylinders

The Kamengo Feeder can be fitted with side mounted hydraulic cylinders to minimize the length of the equipment.

Automatic lubrication system

The Feeder can be fitted with an automatic lubrication system that lubricates the Feeder wheels. 

Conditioning

The Feeder can be fitted with a conditioning system that hits the discharged bulk solid with a steady mist of water as the bulk solid falls from the Feeder. The Kamengo conditioning system is an excellent low-wear alternative to screw mixers. 

Steaming

Steam can be injected through the Feeder into the stored bulk solid above. When combined with a mass flow storage bin, the Feeder delivers even steaming in the stored bulk solid. 

Pressurized operation

The Kamengo Feeder can be fitted within a pressure vessel for applications that must eliminate any ingress of air into downstream processes. 

Material Compaction
Uneven Disharge
LEARN MORE AT KAMENGO-U

The Shortcomings of Conventional Feeders

 

The Kamengo Feeder was developed in response to the common shortfalls of conventional feeders. These shortfalls often result in uneven discharge and chronic plugging.

 

Starting in the late 1970s, Kamengo led a research program to better understand the root causes of bin plugging and found that the feeder was a major culprit contributing to chronic plugging. In particular they found that the conventional feeders have two shortfalls that are particularly problematic when handling a difficult flowing material. These shortfalls include:

 

Material Compaction. The conveying and shearing action of conventional feeders has a tendency to compact material in the bin. As material is conveyed to a single-point, either through friction or interlocking, the material being sheared from the storage bin carries and conveys material above it. This material is compacted against the front of the bin wall. This compaction injects strength into the material. As the stored material’s shear strength increases, the material is able to bridge over wider distances, making it more prone to uneven feed, bridging and the formation of rat-holes.

 

Uneven Discharge. Conventional feeders have a tendency to withdraw material preferentially from the rear of the storage bin. This behaviour is problematic for several reasons:

 

1) for most difficult flowing materials, gravity needs to act on the full span of the discharge outlet in order to be sufficient to keep the material flowing. When the span of the area through which material is flowing is shortened by the behaviour of the feeder, then the material at the outlet requires less shear strength to form a stable bridge or rat-hole. When the shear strength of the material at the outlet exceeds what gravity can break, chronic plugging is expected.

 

2) uneven discharge promotes a funnel flow discharge pattern, regardless of the geometry of the storage bin. It is particularly unfortunate when a conventional feeder induces a funnel flow discharge pattern in a bin designed for mass flow. This is because most difficult flowing materials will not reliably empty in funnel flow from a storage bin designed for mass flow. To make funnel flow work for a difficult flowing material, it must be discharged from a very long and wide “live” opening.